As for the determination of product goals ( ), the principal instrument for the determination of key characteristics is the IPT. The classical product development process begins with the statement of product goals from which product specifications are derived. Typically, little effort is expended on prioritizing the goals or the resulting specification. Indeed, resources are expended on all elements of the product without regard to priority rather than focusing resources on the critical few features that are key to customer satisfaction.
The ten key characteristics of carcinogenic chemicals were formulated in 2015 during two expert workshops convened by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France. These ten characteristics are “the abilities of an agent to 1) act as an electrophile either directly or after metabolic activation; 2) be genotoxic; 3) alter DNA repair or cause genomic instability; 4) induce epigenetic alterations; 5) induce oxidative stress; 6) induce chronic inflammation; 7) be immunosuppressive; 8) modulate receptor mediated effects; 9) cause immortalization; and 10) alter cell proliferation, cell death, or nutrient supply.”