Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods. [ citation needed ] It primarily involves the systematic collection of information about a job. A task-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the duties, tasks, and/or competencies required by the job being assessed. By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the work. Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs.
Specialized knowledge and training in the science of behavior in the workplace requires in-depth knowledge of organizational development, attitudes, career development, decision theory, human performance and human factors, consumer behavior, small group theory and process, criterion theory and development, job and task analysis and individual assessment. In addition, the specialty of industrial-organizational psychology requires knowledge of ethical considerations as well as statutory, administrative, and case law and executive orders as related to activities in the workplace.
"Students embarking on a career in psychology quickly realize the vast career opportunities available within I-O Psychology," explained Tracy Kantrowitz, vice president of research and development for the consulting firm SHL. "As indicated by the SIOP careers study of individuals with advanced degrees in I-O Psychology, professionals can hold jobs as diverse as external consultant, chief human resources officer, research scientist, vice president of talent management, or university professor. Diverse career paths combined with a substantial median starting salary for new PhDs ($78,000 as reported in the 2013 SIOP salary survey report) make the field attractive to those charting career options."