Lockavitch and other educational researchers say that providing multiple engagements with new words over an extended period is necessary to commit them to long-term memory. Word exposures should be done in ways that engage different senses: The student should read the word, write the word, hear the word, and say the word. To tap into multiple modalities, Steven A. Stahl (1999) found that teachers must include definitional, contextual, and usage information when explicitly teaching words. After reading new words, students must be able to access the phonological processes that give those words meaning, by hearing and speaking new words in addition to reading them (University of Michigan, 2016). Marzano reinforced this finding, asserting that as students hear phonemes while seeing corresponding letters in the new words, the brain makes deeper connections leading to retention. Finally, a study by McKeown, Beck, Omanson, & Pople (1985) noted that once students encounter a word 12 times or more, they are better able to comprehend it, and then integrate it into their writing, speech, and play, where it can now become a part of their personal word bank.